Monday, July 18, 2016

Muhammad in Bible (Isaiah : 32:1-8)


          Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment. And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken. The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be ready to speak plainly. The vile person shall be no more called liberal, nor the churl said to be bountiful. For the vile person will speak villany, and his heart will work iniquity, to practise hypocrisy, and to utter error against the Lord, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail. The instruments also of the churl are evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right. But the liberal deviseth liberal things; and by liberal things shall he stand. (King James Version)

In this verse, we would see a King who would reign in righteousness. After the King passed away, he would be succeeded by his successors who were also righteous (just). Why I include this verse to the prophecy about Muhammad. What was the relation with him. As I said at the beginning, prophecy is something that has full-of-allegory and symbolic meaning, it doesn't say to the point but it has a wider meaning about the supposed event. You may not realize that verily the prophecy about Prophet Muhammad had a keyword which if we see it we will find it. The keyword about him in the Old Testament was illiterate. It was like what Allah said in sura Al-Araaf which I wrote in the previous chapter. This keyword which will be an opener to see those prophecies.


Illiterate was someone who couldn't read. He couldn't read because he had never been taught to read since childhood. If he was asked to read or taught to read, then he would read it with stammering. We will also find this keyword in this prophecy.
This prophecy was nothing but information which would inform the government which was carried out by the Prophet Muhammad and his successors who were called by Khulafaur Rasyidun (the rightly guided leaders). Maybe some of you didn't believe for what I said. But we see later, why I am brave to include this verse in the prophecy which told about the early Islamic government. That is a government which was based on Holy Koran and Sunnah. The government which was known as the Golden Age of Islam.

            Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.

           The Prophet Isaiah said that later there would appear a King who would reign in righteousness. He was a just leader and performing his government with justice. The question was, who was the King whom Isaiah meant?. He didn't mention his name and characteristic but, he just said that the King would reign in righteousness. He didn't reign only based on his own thought and will but he reigned based on the righteousness.
The supposed righteousness was the treatise of Allah (commandment). That Was what he meant as righteousness. The second characteristic from the King was not only him who reigned in righteousness but the successors who succeeded him also performing justice. They would also carry out their government with righteousness and justice.

Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.

           Then it was said there would be princes who would rule in judgment. While in another version of Bible it was said as rulers. It meant the successors of the King would also reign in justice and judgment. They would do the same as the first King, that was reigning using righteousness and justice.

            And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.

           Then, it was said that someone among the princes (rulers) would be a leader that shadowed (protect) his citizenry from the despotism of the despotic. He was like a shelter from the tempest and like a great rock which shadowed from the heat of the sun. He would protect his people from those who liked to seize other people's right. He was not like other leaders who seldom judged his people or reluctant to protect his citizenry. He was a leader who was close to his people. His leadership could be met by all people.

            And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken.

            In that time, the condition of the people was guided by Allah. They all knew the truth and righteousness. Their eyes were opened to see Allah's verses and the given truth. Their eyes would not again be dim and closed from seeing the true truth. And also for their ears, those who had heard the truth would not be deaf again, but contrary, they would hearken the words and truth which were said.

            The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge,

            Then, it was said that later the people who were usually rash in doing something would be careful. They would consider all of their deeds before doing something. It happened because of the righteousness which they understood and knew from the first King. Customarily, they do something without consideration, but after the King and his successors reigned, they would be fear because of the knowledge and because of the punishment which they would get if they violate the law. That's why they would be more careful when doing something.

            and the tongue of the stammerers shall be ready to speak plainly

            In this prophecy we will find the keyword which I meant. It was said that after the King and his successors reigned, the stammering people would speak plainly. They would speak without obstruction. The stammerers was symbolic prophecy from illiterate people. They, along time of his life, never learned reading and even read a book, and if they were asked to read, certainly they would say it with stammering. They wouldn't say plainly but full of obstruction.
           By this prophecy, the King and his successor which the prophecy meant were not Israelites. Because it was clear that the people/citizenry which the prophecy meant were illiterate people. Israel was not illiterate nation. They were the nation that had higher literacy level than other nations. Because they had many books (Bible). To them were given many holy books so that making them used to read and learn to read. Therefore, they were called as Ahli Kitab (people of the scripture).
            Whereas in this verse, it was said that the people or citizenry in that time were illiterate. They didn't use to read and learn because, in their society, there was no habit which compelled them to read. They didn't have a book which was read by other people or read by themselves.
            This prophecy said that later, the people who were beforehand illiterate, would be literate after the King and his successors reigned them. Reading habit would be widespread in the society. Their tongue would be more fluent and they would be no more speaking with stammering.

            The vile person shall be no more called liberal, nor the churl said to be bountiful. For the vile person will speak villany, and his heart will work iniquity, to practise hypocrisy , and to utter error against the Lord, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail. The instruments also of the churl are evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right.

           Another change which would happen after the coming of the King and his successors was substitution of each man's image. Beforehand, the vile and the churl were judged as liberal (kind and honorable) because they had much money and abundant wealth. But, if the King and his successors had governed, they would be no more judged as liberal. They would be judged as vile people in the society. Because they had done evil and don't care with the truth. Although they had much wealth but they didn't give some of them to the poor and the weak.
            After the coming of the new leadership, the condition would be reversed. Someone would be judged as liberal if he did righteously and in accordance with the truth. They would have honorable place in the society. Because they kept doing righteously.

            But the liberal deviseth liberal things; and by liberal things shall he stand.

           A question appears, how could be there several changes after the coming of the King and his successors?. Was there a great movement so that the condition of the people changed?. Or, was there any revolution which caused them to be more careful and fluent?. The answer was not. There was no organized movement or revolution which made the condition changed. The change happened merely because of leadership, justice, righteousness which were given by the King and his successors. The change appeared because of unity of understanding from beneath to top and vice versa so that the society changed to a better condition.
            And what also made the change appear was a reading habit. As said beforehand, they were formerly illiterate people. They couldn't read plainly and well. After the reading habit was widespread in society, they would read and speak more fluently. They would have knowledge about truth and books of God.
           
The Prophecy about Islamic Caliphate

The prophecy which we have just read informing the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad and his successors. A prophecy which would reveal the Golden Age of Islam. The age where people were led by the righteous and pious leaders.

            Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.

            The first prophecy said that later there would appear a King who reigned in righteousness. That was he governed his people according to Allah's guidance and command.
            Muhammad was a prophet who had complete role in society. He didn't only have a role in religious service and act of devotion but also statehood. He had important role in Madinah in many aspects such as organizing relationship between communities, commanding and upholding Allah's law, being place of denunciation, and leading the troops in war. All of those were just some from many roles he had as the leader of Madinah in that time.
            When he came to Madinah, he was appointed as leader by the inhabitants of Madinah and the Muslims. Prior to that, they were divided to some tribes, but since they embraced Islam, the leadership was in the hand of the Prophet Muhammad. He was being shade of people in that time. Even though he didn't have facilities which supported a government, but his leadership was comprehensive. He didn't only have role in religious service and act of devotion but statehood. It could be seen from several people's matter which he led. From the matters of law, relationship between tribes/religions, and another people's case. He became leader who judged his people's case not only based on his own thought but commandment. The commandment which he received from his God. Every leader was same in his leadership, but what made them different was the base they used in judging a case. There was leader who judged the case only based on his own thought and will and there was leader who used objective truth.
            The Prophet Muhammad led his people and judge their case based on revelation and truth. It was proven from many verses which were sent down concerning many matters and also verses which ordered to be just in deciding the case in Koran.

            Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.

            Then, it was said that later the successors would also become leader who performed his leadership with judgment. This prophecy was also appropriate by Khulafaur Rasyidun (the rightly guided leaders) who became successor of the Prophet Muhammad after he passed away. Khulafaur Rasyidun was a title for the leaders who forwarded the leadership of Prophet Muhammad. They were called as Khulafaur Rasyidun because they performed their leadership based on the teaching of the Prophet Muhammad.
            The prophet Isaiah told that later the princes or the successors would perform their leadership with judgment (justice). If compared to the leadership of Khulafaur Rasyidun, it would be a reality. It was proven with justice and judgment which they did when they were appointed as the leaders. There were many information which could be seen in the history books about their just leadership.
           They could govern justly because of some factors which are :
a.      Leadership based on Koran and Sunnah

All Historians agreed that all Khulafaur Rasyidun who were Abu Bakar, Umar, Utsman, and Ali, had performed the wheel of the leadership with the foundation of Holy Koran and Sunnah. All of them were well known very fervently in holding the steps which Muhammad left. They performed the mandate of leadership by what they saw from both foundations. What they saw true, they would justify it. What they saw wrong, they wouldn't justify it. They didn't judge his people's case only based on their own thought but by both foundations.
There were so many information which told the way of their governing. All were based on both foundations which were left by the Prophet Muhammad. So that when they performed the wheel of their leadership using both foundations, they judged every people's case justly.

b.       System of collective deliberation

The second factor which made their leadership running with judgment was their way in taking decision. We could see how they took decision by having discussion with the competent people in the field of religion and prophet's close companions. They didn't take decision only based on their own interest or one group's interest but, by seeing how far it was according to the command of Allah and his messenger. Their decisions were reminded along the time. They were the people who were commendable in spreading Islam to the entire peninsula.
            These two things which became important factor why the Islamic Caliphate which was said by many people as the Golden Age of Islam running with judgment.

            And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.

            And it was said that a man among them would be like a shadowing place of the people in demanding justice. He was a strong leader as if he was a great rock which protected the people who sheltered to it. He was like a shelter from the stringency of the tempest and like a rock which shadowed from the heat of sun. He was people's shelter place from the people who liked to seized the rights wrongly.
            So, who was that person?, who was the person whom prophet Isaiah meant?. He was nothing but Umar bin Khottob. He was whom the verse meant.
Umar was one of the leaders from the four leaders who were called as Khulafaur Rasyidun. He was known as a leader who was just and always cared with his people. He was also known as unpretentious leader and disliking luxury. He was a leader who was always be a place of people's denunciation from those who liked to seize right. Below is a proof of his leadership which was like a strong shadowing place.
    When Islam arrived in Egypt, the Governor in that time wanted to build a mosque. The problem was the place of the building was next to a decrepit hut owned by a Jewish old man. When he was asked his house to be ruined by given some money, the Jews refused. But finally, his house was just ruined. Seeing that happened, the Jews was angry and he decided to complain to Umar who was the Caliph in that time. He just went to Madinah to meet Umar, and how surprising him was when he saw the Caliph who was assumed full of guards and accessories, but looked so unpretentious. He saw the leader sitting in the front porch of the mosque without guards.
           He just complained for what happened to Umar. Hearing that event, Umar was angry, and the Jews was asked to take a camel scapula from rubbish then giving it to Umar. Umar then scratched the bone with alif letter (straight) from top to bottom. And in the midst of the scratching, there was also another crossing scratched by using the point of a sword, then the bone was given to the Jews and Umar said : "Bring this bone carefully to Egypt and give it to Governor Amr bin Ash". The Jews was flustered when asked to bring the scratched and give it to Governor Amr bin Ash.
            Then, he just gave the bone to him. The Governor was pale and trembled when receiving that bone. At the moment, the Governor just gathered his people to build again the hut which was owned by the Jews.
            "Take apart that mosque!", shout Governor Amr bin Ash trembling. The Jews was amazed and didn't understand the attitude of the Governor.
    "Wait!", shout the Jews. "Sorry sir, please explain to me this peculiar matter. From where did that bone come from? What was the feature of that bone so that you were dauntless to decide to just take apart this very expensive building? Verily I didn't understand."
Governor Amr bin Ash held the Jews’ shoulder and said : "O old man, this bone was ordinary bone and the smell was putrid. But, this bone was a great warning for me and this bone was Caliph Umar bin Khottob's threat. It means whatever your rank and authority, one day you will experience the same as the bone (death), therefore do justly like alif letter which was straight. Just in the top, and just in the bottom. Because if you don't do justly and straightly like this bone scratching, then the Caliph would not be reluctant to behead my head", explained the Governor. The Jews bent down emotionally and was impressed by the justice in Islam.
"Indeed your religion was noble sir. Verily I am willing to submit the land and the hut. Please guide me to learn Islam."
Finally, he was willing to submit his land for mosque building and he himself embraced Islam.
            That was a well known story of Umar's justice and closeness to his people. He still did justly even though the one who complained was a Jew. There are many information which described Umar's justice. All of those can be seen in the history book and biography about him. Below is one of the most famous of his saying,

            "By God, he that is weakest among you shall be in my sight the strongest, until I have vindicated for him his rights; but him that is strongest will I treat as the weakest, until he complies with the laws". (The Encyclop√¶dia Britannica (9th edition, "Popular Reprint", 1888) remarks of Umar bin Khattab)

            And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken.

           The next prophecy said that when the King and his successors held the leadership, the citizenry whom they led were people who got guidance from Allah. Their eyes had seen the truth which was given by the King and they would keep believing it. And also for their ears which had heard the read revelation, they would be more convinced with the righteousness and not turned back from it.
In that time, people had known the righteousness. Their heart had known the teaching of righteousness and their ears had hearkened the read revelation. So, when they had known it, they wouldn't turn to back. In fact, they would be more convinced with the righteousness. They would be fonder to hear the read revelation.
           This prophecy was also appropriate by what happening when the Islamic Caliphate ruled the government. In that time, all people who lived under Islamic authority were Muslims who had known Islam. They were formerly people who didn't know the truth, but when they started to learn Islam from Prophet Muhammad and his companions, they became more convinced with the religion. Their eyes were opened and their ears noted. They believed that only Islam was true. Whereas formerly, they had gone astray. They worshipped idols and did another evil deeds.

            "It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom – although they were before in clear error."(Al-Jumuah : 2)

After they embraced Islam, they started to see the truth and hearken the read revelation. That thing made them more convinced with the faith they had just believed.

            The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge,

            The subsequent prophecy said that later, people would be more careful if they wanted to satisfy their lust with several deeds. How could be like that? The answer was, because the King had brought righteousness so that they would consider all their deeds. They had understood the righteousness and they became more careful if their deeds were contradictory with it. What also made them considering their deeds was the punishment which would they got if they violated the law. The King and his successors had made some regulations in some cases. As a result, people would be careful and they couldn't do everything as they liked. Because, if what they did violated the law, they would be punished. Prior to that, people were free to do their amoral deeds because there was no punishment and regulation for those.
            This prophecy was also appropriate by what happening when the Islamic Caliphate was established. Before the coming of Islamic government, people were not afraid for the deeds they did. They used to do violating deeds without afraid. They used to gamble without afraid, drink liquor without afraid, commit adultery without afraid and rape without afraid, and doing another amoral deeds without afraid. That happened because no one who forbade and punished them.
But, see when the Prophet Muhammad and his successors took their leadership, the condition was reversed. They became more careful in doing their lust. It happened because they had known the righteousness from prophet Muhammad and they would consider all of their deeds. And it also happened because the Islamic Government regulated great punishment to anyone who commit sin (liquor, gamble, adultery and etc.). For example drinking liquor, then the punishment was lash for eighty times. Punishment for those who committed adultery and had got married, then the punishment was stoning until death. The Islamic Caliphate was really strict in punishing the people who committed sin. Those regulations were upheld by the government in order they became frightened and not brave to do sin anymore. People, who sometime ago rash when doing something (lust), now came to understand and considered all of their deeds.

            and the tongue of the stammerers shall be ready to speak plainly

            Then, it was said that later, the stammerers would speak plainly. The stammerers was allegory of illiterate. An illiterate if he was asked to read or taught to read, then he would read with stammering. It was also exact by what happening in that time. If we note, the Arabs before Islam, was nation that didn't really consider reading/writing as important thing. I mean, most people in that time couldn't read because it was not their habit. They didn't give much attention to reading. They were pagan nation. It's different from the Jews who had many holy books so that the reading habit was something normal and customary for them. In Koran, it was said that how some Jews and Christians called the Arabs with illiterate,

            "Among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is he who, if entrusted with a Canter (a great amount of wealth, etc.), will readily pay it back; and among them there is he who, if entrusted with a single silver coin, will not repay it unless you constantly stand demanding, because they say: "There is no blame on us to betray and take the properties of the illiterates (Arabs)." But they tell a lie against Allah while they know it." (Ali Imron: 75)

            It was also said that the Prophet Muhammad was sent to the illiterate people,

            It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom–although they were before in clear error (Al-Jumuah:2)

            Just a few among them who could read and write. But, see what happened after Prophet Muhammad came to the midst of them. He read to them Koran (not by reading it but by saying the revelation) and they learned to read it in their houses. They started to learn to read that book and continued the habit to their children. This habit was done and preserved by them perpetually. And finally, the Arabs who were formerly known as illiterate, became nation that was fluent in speaking and bright in writing. They became nation that was known for its literature and writing. It happened because of the influence of Koran reading which happened since the coming of Islam.
            Another change which would happen after the King reigned was the substitution of vile person's image,

            The vile person shall be no more called liberal, nor the churl said to be bountiful. For the vile person will speak villany, and his heart will work iniquity, to practise hypocrisy, and to utter error against the Lord, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail. The instruments also of the churl are evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right.

            Next, it was said that later the vile and the churl would not get position or degree in the society again. They would be judged according to their vile deeds. They were vile people but because they had much wealth and money, they were respected in society. But that wouldn't happen again. Later, if the King and his successors took their leadership, they would be judged with low position.
           Before Islam came, the unbelievers of Mecca were divided into some groups. Among them were rich people who had abundant wealth and riches. They had high position in the society. But, that happened not because of their philanthropic demeanor but for their aversion to help the poor. You can see the evidence in Koran. If you see Makkiyah verses, there were some verses which criticized the rich unbelievers for their aversion to help the poor. They also rejected the teaching of the Prophet Muhammad. In spite of that, they had much wealth and children so that they were judged with respectability in society.
            But, after Islam came, it wiped all kinds of ignorance which existed in society. The condition was changed. They didn't get any place in the people's sight. Islam taught that someone's degree became precious because of his piety not because of his wealth or evil deeds. Islam gave the best place for those who had religious knowledge and piety. They became respected and they were become leader by the people. Before the coming of Islam, Umar bin Khottob was one whom people feared because of his stern attitude, but after he embraced Islam and his faith was good, he became respected and honored in society. He became a prophet's companion who really cared with religion and kept the commandment. Until finally, he was appointed as a Caliph in that time by the Muslims. It all happened because Allah raised the degree of the piety.


            But the liberal deviseth liberal things; and by liberal things shall he stand.

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